Female Factor Anovulation is the cause of infertility in 40% of women. Ovulation can be monitored by –
- Basal Body Temperature Chart (BBT):
Female factor infertility caused by daily recording of a woman’s basal body temperature is useful to determine whether she is ovulating or not. It indicates ovulation, if the temperature record is biphasic, i.e., a low phase and high phase, with about a 0.6° F difference.
Ultrasound is a diagnostic procedure of female factor infertility ovulation. Vaginal probe during ultrasound exam allows the physician to monitor the ovulation process in the ovary during the patient’s menstrual cycle. Ultrasound may also detect ovarian endometriosis and fibroids.
Occasionally the BBT does not give an accurate picture of occurrence of ovulation. On that occasion, a blood test to evaluate the serum progesterone level is used.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOS):
PPCOS is caused due to genetic defect of hormonal imbalance. With low levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), the follicles doesn’t develop properly and the eggs also not mature. An imbalance of Luteinizing Hormone (LH) causes over production of estrogen, abnormal thickening of the uterine lining and heavy and/or irregular periods. High levels of LH can trigger over production of male hormones in women including testosterone, which causes acne and facial hair in women. Elevated estrogen levels associated with PCOS may create an increased risk of uterine cancer and diabetes.
PCOS infertility treatment is done in the Motherhood fertility centre, by doing female infertility treatment in Hyderabad
Tubal factor infertility treatment:
Ovulatory dysfunction results from congenital defects, hormonal deficiencies and/or the ageing process. Common forms of ovulatory dysfunction include:
Some women don’t have menstrual periods while others menstruate but don’t ovulate. Women with Primary amenorrhea never had a period & women with secoundry amneohhea have irregular periods that stopped prematurely.
With anovulation, eggs aren’t released from the follicles.
Luteal Phase defects occur when a woman has a menstrual cycle and is ovulating, but the cycle is too short for the uterine lining to thicken properly.
Premature Ovarian Failure:
Female factor infertility causes also include menopause, which is usually occurs after several decades of menstrual cycles and natural depletion of the ovarian reserve. Premature ovarian failure or early menopause can be caused by
Exposure to certain chemicals
Chemotherapy and radiation for cancer treatment, genital tuberculosis and endometriosis.
Certain genetic disorders can trigger premature ovarian failure
Autoimmune diseases such as Lupus or Rheumatoid arthritis.
Fibroids & Polyps:Usually they are found inside the uterus and affect implantation of the fertilized embryo. Symptoms of fibroids – heavy bleeding, pain and abdominal pressure.
Female factor infertility also caused because of tissue lining the inner surface of uterus (Endometrium) grows and thickens during a menstrual cycle to receive a fertilized egg (implantation).But without a pregnancy, the lining sheds and is discharged with blood during a menstrual period. Endometriosis occurs when this tissue grows outside the uterus and the shedding process deposits blood and tissue in the abdomen. As a result, scar tissue can form in the fallopian tubes, adhere to the ovaries and cause misalignment of the organs, preventing natural conception. Although some women have no discomfort even with severe endometriosis, others experience abnormal menstrual bleeding and pain, tenderness in the abdomen and pelvis, and painful intercourse.
Treatment for female infertility:
Female infertility treatment depends upon the actual cause and can be treated by:
Ovulation induction (using hormone therapy)
Using assisted reproductive technologies (ART), especially in vitro fertilization treatment
Female factor infertility causes are generated by obstructions within the reproductive organs. The problems solved by surgery include:
fibroids- non-malignant tumours developing inside the uterus
polyps- overdevelopment of the uterine lining, called as the endometrium
endometriosis-the development of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus, which blocks the fallopian tubes
varian cysts- that can be removed
Nowadays most of the female infertility treatment in the process of surgery is performed by ‘keyhole surgery utilizing an operative laparoscope (utilizing the abdomen) or an operative hysteroscope (by cervix as well as uterus). In some cases, this can not be possible for several reasons and open surgery might be required.
Ovulation induction for female infertility treatment:
Having irregularity and absence in periods signifies that ovulation is also irregular or absent. But, even those women, who have regular periods may skip female factor infertility ovulation.
The ovulation can be induced through medications in tablet forms and also in injectable forms. Oral medications like clomiphene citrate (Clomid) can decrease the response of the receptors in the brain to estrogens in the body, which are occurring naturally. This process leads to an increase in the hormone release from the brain which provokes ovulation.
Synthetic gonadotrophins in injectable forms, the hormones are released by the pituitary gland in the brain that prompt the ovaries an egg. This can also use to stimulate female factor infertility ovulation.
Sometimes, the synthesized gonadotrophins response may be excessive, which are leading to a condition called ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The symptoms like oedema (fluid resistance), pain at the abdominal areas and bloating. Normal blood tests are used to help to minimize the OHSS risk and occurrence of multiple pregnancies.
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) including in vitro fertilization treatment (IVF)
For retrieval of eggs from the ovaries, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) utilized. It includes in vitro fertilization treatment (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), those are used when there is male factor infertility. ART involves hormone stimulation process for the production of 10-15 eggs rather than the one which usually matures every month. When the eggs are ready to retrieve, those are retrieved by ultrasound-guided procedure.
In in vitro fertilization treatment, the collected eggs are then mixed with the sperm of the male partner or a donor. In the case of ICSI Fertility treatment procedure, each egg is injected with a single sperm. After two to five days, an embryo is transferred to the uterus of the woman using a thin tube, which is inserted through the cervix. If there are more than the required number of embryos, then the extra embryos can be preserved.