Male partner may have low sperm count or non-motile sperms or their motility may be poor or they may be abnormally shaped. The males may also have problem with delivering sperms in the female genital tract. That’s why male factor infertility treatment is required.
Semen Analysis: The semen sample is used to determine the fertility of male. This requires a masturbation specimen, collected in a sterile container provided by the laboratory.
Morphology: Sperm appearance, its structural examination is not done by most of the labs, but we are doing it in our Motherhood fertility Centre, one of the best male fertility clinics in Hyderabad. It is the best predictor for sperm function. Even if a semen analysis has been done elsewhere, we may request a repeat test in our lab.
Semen survival test: The ability of sperm to survive in female genital tract can be assessed by this test. Washed and prepared semen is kept under co2 with body temperature in incubator for 24 hours and check latter to assess the sperm survival in female genital tract.
Oligozoospermia: sperm count less than normal is called oligozoospermia.
Asthenozoospermia: decreased motility of sperms is called Asthenozoospermia.
Teratozoospermia: Abnormal structure of sperms is called teratozoospermia
Azoospermia: Absence of sperms in semen is called azoospermia.
Usually the above abnormalities are present in various combinations. These abnormalities are caused by following defects in male reproductive system.
Undescended testis: Occurs when the testis fails to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum during fetal life. This leads to total absence of sperm production.
Varicocele: This consists of dilated and tortuous testicular veins that contain stagnated blood. This leads to impaired sperm production in testes.
Hydrocele: This consists of collection of fluid in coverings around the testis. This may lead to impaired sperm production.
Infection of testis (Orchitis): This can be caused by sexually transmitted diseases, prostatitis, urethritis, etc.
Genetic diseases: Chromosomal disorder like Klinefelter’s syndrome having 47xxy karyotype can cause low sperm count or azoospermia.
Sperm antibodies: Sperm antibodies can form in individual’s blood that can lead to infertility.
Impaired delivery of sperms to the female genital tract can be due to:
Blockage of epididymis or ejaculatory ducts
Spinal cord problems
Severe injury or major surgery involving the male reproductive system.
Medical conditions can be associated with infertility such as: Diabetes / Thyroid disorders / Disorders of pituitary gland / Disorders of adrenal glands / Liver or kidney failure / Genetic diseases / HIV/AIDS
Common sexual problems in men:
Loss or less libido
Causes: Sexual problems can be a result of physical or psychological disorder.
Erectile dysfunction or Impotence:
Definition: Inability to attain and or maintain an erection suitable for intercourse.
Causes: Artherosclerosis [hardening of the arteries] affects blood flow. Nerve disorders / Psychological factors / Stress / Depression / Performance anxiety / Injury to the penis / Chronic illness / Peyronie’s disease[scar tissue in the penis]
Ejaculation disorders: There are 4 types of disorders:-
Premature ejaculation – It occurs before or soon after penetration
Inhibited or retarded ejaculation – Inhibited or retarded ejaculation is delayed &/or slow to occur
Retrograde ejaculation – At orgasm the ejaculate is forced back into the bladder rather than through the urethra and out the end of penis.
Anejaculation – absence of ejaculation
Loss of Libido: Decrease in sexual desire or interest in sexual activity.
Assessment of male infertility:
Semen analysis: Semen analysis is the most important and easy investigation for male partner. You should have abstinence of at least three days before giving semen for examination.
Semen is usually given by masturbation in a sterile semen collection container in laboratory.
Analysis of semen usually includes the following components:
Semen volume – is the total amount of semen in a single ejaculation.
Sperm concentration – is the number of sperms present in one ml of semen.
Sperm motility – is the ability of sperm to move.
Morphology – indicates the structure of sperms.
Minimal requirements for male fertility:
Semen volume: more than 1.5 ml
Sperm concentration: more than 15 millions/ml
Total sperm count: more than 38 millions/ml per ejaculate
Motility : more than 40% sperms having grade 3 to 4 motility( forward progression)
Morphology : more than 30% normal sperms
Evaluation of male hormones:
Testosterone, Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH),
Prolactin (PRL), Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), Thyroid hormones (T3, T4, TSH)
Scrotal sonography & Color Doppler:
This can diagnose hydrocele, hernia or varicocele.
when semen analysis shows absence of sperms in repeated semen samples and testicular size is normal, then testicular biopsy is usually indicated to know the cause of azoospermia. In this small piece of one or both testis is taken for histopathological examination under local or general anesthesia.
This test is done when some genetic disorder is suspected in male partner or in patients with severe sperm defects. This is also required before proceeding for IVF or ICSI.
Surgical retrieval of sperms for ICSI:
When semen analysis shows absent sperms but testicular biopsy shows production of sperms in the testes, we use various surgical sperm retrieval techniques to retrieve the sperms from testes or the collection system. ICSI treatment is done with these surgically retrieved sperms to achieve the pregnancy. These techniques are:
Testicular sperm aspiration (TESA)
Testicular sperm extraction (TESE)
Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)
Microepididymal sperm aspiration (MESA)
Vas deferens aspiration (VDA)
All these male factor infertility treatment procedures are done in our Motherhood fertility centre. Because of its success rate, the centre is becoming one of the leading male fertility clinics in Hyderabad.
When we listened about infertility, then a picture of a man cannot come to our mind. But it is a surprising fact that 30% of the infertility cases are related to male factor infertility. In a recent study, it is showed that only 41% of infertility specialists in Hyderabad considered a urological evaluation of male partner and only 24% would refer to the urologist before doing semen analysis. Infertility is a problem for both the partners, so face infertility like a team.
Many men, who are doing male factor infertility diagnosis, they face an emotionally tough journey. Some people also face a feeling of guilt, anger, and low self-esteem. It is important to understand that the male partner may be experiencing much emotional pain, but he should understand that condition of the woman, whose self-worth and feminity is wrapped up by infertility issues. A couple facing infertility issues, maybe it is male factor infertility or female factor infertility, they should support each other and concerned with fertility treatment centres as soon as possible.
Male factor infertility diagnosis:
consult with an infertility specialist or urologist. You can take help of the best infertility specialists in Hyderabad in Motherhood fertility centre. For men, it is the toughest part of the course. The male factor diagnosis should be done by a urologist, who has a special interest in male factor infertility treatment. Because male factor infertility diagnosis and treatment of Male Factor Infertility methods including technically challenging sperm retrieval procedures need special training as well as expertise. If you are thinking that you are suffering from male factor infertility, then you both partners should have a necessary and male factor infertility diagnosis before the beginning of any infertility treatment.
Some other things to consider:
Male infertility issue may sometimes the initial symptom of significant medical problems like brain tumours, the disease of the thyroid gland, diabetes, many sclerosis problem, and genetic diseases. It is also a growing concern that male infertility factor may actually be an initiator of testicular cancer because the male infertility factor is found more in more infertile men than in general people. So, be cautious and when you are doing male factor infertility diagnosis, do testicular cancer screening also.